THE WATER DISTRIBUTION ENVIRONMENT
It is a well documented and researched fact, that there exist considerable amounts of air in municipal water pipelines. In fact, the entry, control, and release of air from pipelines are a major, though often, the hidden problem in pipelines used for water supply1. Furthermore, air valves require regular maintenance, but in practice, this is rarely undertaken and there are numerous instances of their leaking and/or failing to operate correctly. In certain cases, the vibration of the valves during start-up or shut-down of pumps can cause air to be drawn into a pipeline – the exact opposite of what is intended1. Air also finds its way into our municipal water pipes through the enormous amount of repair work that is constantly being done on them and the aging infrastructure exacerbates the problem of ruptured water mains.